|Application||Installed capacity(MWt)||Installed capacity (TJ/yr)|
Individual space heating
|Bathing and swimming||1,205||22,800|
Geothermal heat pumps
Source: Lund and Toth, 2021.
Turkish Geothermal Power Plant Investors Association (JESDER) - JESDER represents the leading companies who have been granted by Energy Market Regulatory Board (EMRA) geothermal Production Licenses. The association's main objective is to develop geothermal power production culture and develop and implement international standards for sustainable power production in Türkiye.
Turkish Geothermal Energy Association (Jeotermal Enerji Dernegi, JED) - Established in 2020, the Association aims to promote geothermal as a clean domestic source of energy that goes beyond electricity generation.
Geothermal Development Project – An initiative aiming to activate USD 555 million of private investment for the development of over 380MW of electricity as well as direct uses for the benefit of local communities. The project is supported by two World Bank loans worth USD 300 million.
Geothermal Risk Sharing Mechanism (RSM) – The RSM is a USD 39.8 million scheme designed to increase private sector investment in early-stage geothermal exploration in Türkiye. If exploration drilling fails, RSM will cover part of the drilling costs. The project was established in 2018 through the support of the World Bank's Clean Technology Fund.
YEKDEM [Renewable Energy Support Scheme] program – YEKDEM was set up to incentivize renewable energy production. Under the scheme, renewable energy plants including wind, hydropower, geothermal, biomass and solar can qualify for feed-in tariffs. In January 2021, the Turkish presidency published a new YEKDEM scheme providing a feed-in tariff scheme that applies to renewable energy power plants becoming operational between 1 July 2021 and 21 December 2025 (inclusive). The new YEKDEM scheme established under the Presidential Decision No. 3453 shifts the currency of previously US Dollar (USD)-denominated feed-in tariff and domestic components incentive premia payments to Turkish Lira (TRY), whilst still capping the price based on USD.
PLUTO initiative – a US$125 million fund established by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (US$100 million) and the Clean Technology Fund (US$25 million) to finance early-stage exploration drilling in Türkiye.
GeoPro Project – GeoPro is a project funded by the EU's Horizon 2020 programme. It aims to improve the understanding and modelling of geofluid’s physical and chemical characteristics. Among the three sites that are being studied is a high-enthalpy geothermal site in Türkiye.
GeoSmart – EU’s Horizon 2020 funded project aiming to demonstrate innovations to improve the flexibility and efficiency of geothermal heat and power systems by integrating thermal storage at an operating geothermal power plant in Kizildere, Türkiye.
MASPO Energy national geothermal R&D center – the Center will focus on research on equipment manufacturing in Türkiye, energy efficiency of plants, and treatment of geothermal fluids.
Türkiye-Germany Cooperation Initiative – In 2018, the German Geothermal Association and JESDER signed a partnership agreement to intensify the promotion of business opportunities and work on technological development in both countries.
Agricultural Specialized Greenhouse Organized Industrial Zone (TDIOSB) – an investment programme by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, which supports greenhouses to install geothermal energy for heating to control temperature.
Legal and Regulatory Framework
The Geothermal Resources and Mineral Waters Law is the primary law that regulates the exploration, extraction and exploitation of geothermal energy.
Geothermal resource maps – various geothermal maps produced by the general directorate of mineral research and exploration.
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Geothermal Resources in Turkey – A report published by Ministry of Environment and Urbanization of the Republic of Türkiye and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), which evaluates cumulative impacts of existing and planned geothermal energy power plants and provides effective use of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes.
Geothermal Energy Technologies Report – A report published by Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUBA) through compilation of the papers presented at the TÜBA – Geothermal Energy Technologies and Panel in 2020.
Electricity Market Production Licenses – a database of power plants in Türkiye which can be queried by various criteria including type of power plant and its status of operation.
Energy Exchange Platform – provides realtime generation and consumption of electricity by energy source.